Hesperidin is a glycoside formed by hesperetin and rutin. It is a dihydroflavonoid derivative with a molecular formula of C28H34O15 and a molecular mass of 610.5. The pure hesperidin is hair-like needle-like crystals, and the color is white or pale , The melting point range is 258～262 ℃, it is widely found in legumes, labiatae, discofloraceae, Rutaceae, and citrus plants. Hesperidin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, immunity regulation, radiation protection, cardiovascular system protection and other pharmacological activities. Hesperidin (Hesperidin) is synonymous with hesperidin and hesperidin, lg hesperidin is soluble in 50 L of water, soluble in dimethylformamide and formamide at 60℃, slightly soluble in ethanol, methanol and hot glacial acetic acid ; Almost insoluble in acetone; insoluble in ether, benzene: hardly soluble in methyl chloride, slightly soluble in hot acetic acid, aniline: soluble in pyridine, glycerin, dilute alkali. The ethanol solution was dripped with ferric chloride test solution, it was dark brown, after reduction with magnesium powder and hydrochloric acid, it was purple, dissolved in dilute alkali, it was yellow, it was precipitated with acid, and it was hydrolyzed into glucose, rhamnose and Orange peel. The molecular structure of hesperidin contains multiple hydroxyl groups, which are acidic and hydrophilic, and are flavanones that are flavonoids. As vitamin p in the early stage, in recent years it has been found to have pharmacological effects such as lowering blood pressure, anti-allergic, lowering bone density, cholesterol, changing enzyme activity in the body, improving microcirculation, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatitis, anti-tumor and other pharmacological effects.
1. Alcohol solvent extraction
Hesperidin was extracted from tangerine peel with 95% methanol/water solution mixed solvent. Under the optimal extraction process conditions, its purity can reach 94.7%. The yield of hesperidin extracted by methanol is higher than that of ethanol, but methanol is more toxic, volatile, and harmful to the human body. The ethanol is safe to use, not only for laboratory use, but also suitable for industrial production.
2. Two-phase extraction
Use hesperidin to transfer hesperidin into the organic phase by its low solubility in water and high solubility in polar organic solvents, choose acetone and (NH4)2SO4-H2O as the two aqueous phase system, and study the double water The phase formation system of phase extraction hesperidin and the factors affecting the extraction rate. The results show that: when the amount of (NH4)2SO4 is 4.0g, the extraction effect is better, and the extraction rate can reach 98.22%. In recent years, the aqueous two-phase extraction technology has been widely used in the separation and purification process of biological products because of its low toxicity, high efficiency, easy solvent recovery, simple operation, easy amplification and maintenance of biological tongues.
3. Ultrasonic assisted extraction
Ultrasonic extraction mainly includes cavitation effect, mechanical effect, thermal effect and so on. Some studies have studied the optimal ultrasonic extraction and crystallization process conditions of hesperidin from tangerine peel by orthogonal experiments. The results show that under the optimal extraction process conditions, more than 0.25 g of crude hesperidin can be obtained for every 5 g of dried tangerine peel powder, with a purity of greater than 92%. The extraction and crystallization process is simple, economical, stable, and efficient, and it can try industrial production.
4. Microwave assisted extraction
The flavonoids were extracted from citrus peel by microwave method. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate was 3.12%. Experiments show that the extraction process of hesperidin can be simplified as follows: under the irradiation of 200 W microwave, the first step is to extract the tangerine peel with 95% ethanol for 3 times, and the second step to extract the residue with 60% ethanol for one time, and 80% of the tangerine peel can be obtained. Of hesperidin. Microwave extraction has the characteristics of simple equipment, wide application range, high efficiency, fast speed, low pollution, time saving, solvent and energy.
5. Enzymatic assisted extraction
With the aid of enzymatic method, the optimal technology for extracting total flavonoids from citrus peel was studied. Under the best conditions, the extraction rate of hesperidin was (3.5I±0.13)%. Studies have shown that when the amount of crude cellulose enzyme is 30 mg/g dry orange powder, the extraction rate of hesperidin is as high as 6.13%. And pointed out that its relative standard deviation (RSD) is 0.28% (n=3), which proves that the process is stable and feasible. Enzyme-assisted extraction technology has the advantages of high efficiency, non-toxicity, and mild reaction conditions. It is an important research direction of modern biochemical green separation technology.
6. Ultrafiltration extraction
Taking the content of hesperidin as the inspection index, the technological conditions and parameters for the extraction and separation of the effective components from tangerine peel by the super-pumping method were studied. The results show that the pore size of the filter membrane, the concentration of the drug solution, and the amount of the filter membrane have a great influence on the extraction and separation of hesperidin. The flat-plate ultrafiltration equipment is used to separate hesperidin from the alkaline extract of citrus peel, and the best process conditions for ultrafiltration extraction and membrane cleaning methods are mainly studied. Experiments show that the separation effect of 30 kD polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membrane is better, and the pectin removal rate can reach 9 1-3%. Membrane separation technology has the characteristics of maintaining the activity of the extracted components, large processing capacity, good separation effect, simple operation, low energy consumption and strong selectivity, and can realize the large-scale production of hesperidin.
7. Column chromatography extraction
D101 macroporous resin has good adsorption to hesperidin, and can separate and purify hesperidin from navel orange peel. After purification by D101 macroporous resin, the content of hesperidin in the sample was 91.41%, the enrichment factor was 1.49, and the recovery rate of hesperidin was 70.27%. Therefore, compared with traditional extraction methods, microwave, ultrasonic, enzymatic, ultrafiltration, and column chromatography extraction, due to its unique advantages, have broader application prospects.
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